Nicky Maynard's strike in the 63rd minute gave Newport an important 1-0 win over a Bolton side who had arrived at Rodney Parade on the back of a 14-game unbeaten run.
The visitors were the better side throughout and must have left south Wales wondering just how on earth they had lost the game.
Three points against Sky Bet League Two's form side breathes new life into Newport's play-off bid.
A hugely entertaining first half with chances at both ends somehow ended scoreless.
Bolton captain Eoin Doyle hit the bar inside the first 10 minutes while his fellow former Cardiff player – Newport's Maynard – had a dipping effort saved.
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Kieran Lee also missed a sitter of a header just before the break.
Newport were forced into defensive reshuffles in the second half, with David Longe-King and Priestley Farquharson both being forced off.
Against the run of play, Newport took the lead. Josh Sheehan's free-kick was deflected towards his own goal by Bolton defender Ricardo Santos. Matt Gilks saved well, but Maynard gobbled up the rebound.
Maynard then came close to a second, but his powerful low shot was saved by Gilks.
Bolton thought they had equalised right at the death. Alex Baptiste's header at the back post looked like it was over the line, but goalkeeper Nick Townsend blocked the ball and then dived on it in a goalmouth scramble.
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